Document Type : Original Article


PhD Graduate in Public Administration from the Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabataba'i University ,Tehran, Iran



Many administrative reform initiatives have explicitly made a connection between the need to reform public services, improving citizen satisfaction with public services, and maintaining or restore the public trust in government. In this regard, the measurement of citizens' satisfaction with public services shows that the public sector has increasingly placed citizens' satisfaction in the center of its attention. Since the establishment of this mechanism, a lot of research has been done in this field and we are witnessing the accumulation of knowledge in this field. Therefore, according to the previous reviews, it is necessary to conduct a meta- synthesis study as one of the meta-study methods. For this purpose, a number of 671 articles were extracted from the Scopus citation database between 1973 and 2022, and after refining them, analysis was finally performed on 32 articles. According to the results of the research, the most important antecedents of citizen satisfaction are: service delivery process, information provided about the service, customer service (face-to-face service), websites (off-site service) and general expectations. Also, the most important consequences of citizen satisfaction are: trust in the government and complaints about the service received. Based on the identified antecedents and consequences, a preliminary model of citizens' satisfaction with public services was presented.


  1. Badri, M., Al Khaili, M., & Al Mansoori, R. L. (2015). Quality of service, expectation, satisfaction and trust in public institutions: the Abu Dhabi citizen satisfaction survey. Asian Journal of Political Science23(3), 420-447.
  2. Bente, F. M. (2014). Ethnicity and Citizen Satisfaction: A Study on Local Public Administration. Procedia Economics and Finance15, 1324-1330.
  3. Bouckaert, G., Van de Walle, S., & Kampen, J. K. (2005). Potential for comparative public opinion research in public administration. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 71(2), 229–240.
  4. Carvalho, C., Brito, C., & Cabral, J. S. (2010). Towards a conceptual model for assessing the quality of public services. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing, 7(1), 69–86.
  5. Chatfield, A., & AlAnazi, J. (2013). Service quality, citizen satisfaction, and loyalty with self-service delivery options to transforming e-government services.
  6. Chatzoglou, P., Chatzoudes, D., Vraimaki, E., & Leivaditou, E. (2014). Measuring citizen satisfaction using the SERVQUAL approach: the case of the ‘Hellenic post’. Procedia Economics and Finance9, 349-360.
  7. Clark, D. (2000). Citizens, charters and public service reform in France and Britain. Government and Opposition, 35(2), 152–169.
  8. Dahlström, C., Nistotskaya, M., & Tyrberg, M. (2018). Outsourcing, bureaucratic personnel quality and citizen satisfaction with public services. Public Administration96(1), 218-233.
  9. Davoudpour, Z., & Rezapour, M. (2016). The conceptual model of the relationship between institutional transparency, citizen trust and satisfaction (A case study of Tehran city, Iran).  J. Architect. Eng. Urban Plan26(2), 131-139.
  10. Ferdik, F., Frogge, G., & Cooney, M. (2022). Exploring further determinants of citizen satisfaction with the police: The role of strain. Journal of criminal justice81, 101931.
  11. Gendel-Guterman, H., & Billig, M. (2021). Increasing citizen satisfaction with municipal services: the function of intangible factors. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing18, 171-186.
  12. Im, T., & Lee, S. J. (2012). Does management performance impact citizen satisfaction?. The American Review of Public Administration42(4), 419-436.
  13. Karagianni, T., & Theriou, G.N. (2018). Service quality in local government and its effect on citizen satisfaction: The case of the Division of Transportation and Communications of the Regional Unit of Kavala in the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Greece. International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research, 11, 7-16.
  14. Kim, H. J. (2006). Measuring Citizen Satisfaction with Contracted-Out Public Service Quality: An Application of Servqual Measures. International Review of Public Administration11(2), 1-14.
  15. Kundo, H. K. (2018). Citizen’s Charter for Improved Public Service Delivery and Accountability: The Experience of Land Administration at the Local Government in Bangladesh. International Journal of Public Administration, 41(3), 226–237.
  16. Lee, C. P., Hung, M. J., & Chen, D. Y. (2022). Factors affecting citizen satisfaction: examining from the perspective of the expectancy disconfirmation theory and individual differences. Asian Journal of Political Science30(1), 35-60.
  17. Ma, L. (2017). Performance management and citizen satisfaction with the government: Evidence from Chinese municipalities. Public Administration95(1), 39-59.
  18. McGuire, L. (2001). Service Charters-global convergence or national divergence? A comparison of initiatives in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Public Management Review, 3(4), 493–524.
  19. Mizrahi, S., Cohen, N., & Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2020). Government’s social responsibility, citizen satisfaction and trust. Policy & Politics48(3), 443-460.
  20. Mokhlis, S., Aleesa, Y., & Mamat, I. (2011). Municipal service quality and citizen satisfaction in southern Thailand. Journal of public administration and governance1(1), 122-137.
  21. Morgeson, F. V., & Petrescu, C. (2011). Do they all perform alike? An examination of perceived performance, citizen satisfaction and trust with US federal agencies. International Review of Administrative Sciences77(3), 451-479.
  22. Morgeson, F. V. (2012). Expectations, disconfirmation, and citizen satisfaction with the US federal government: Testing and expanding the model. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory23(2), 289-305.
  23. Morgeson, F. (2014). Citizen satisfaction: Improving government performance, efficiency, and citizen trust. Springer.
  24. Noda, Y. (2019). Citizen expectations and satisfaction of service performance: Lessons from subnational governments in Japan. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Administration41(3), 142-156.
  25. Oscar Nigro, H., & Elizabeth González Císaro, S. (2014). Prediction of citizen satisfaction with local government based on perceptions of physical disorder. Journal of Place Management and Development7(2), 153-175.
  26. Pierre Celestin, B. I. M. E. N. Y. I. M. A. N. A. (2020). Testing Citizen Satisfaction in the Local Government: Focusing on the Vision 2020 Umurenge Program in Rwanda.
  27. Reddick, C. G., Perlman, B. J., & Demir, T. (2022). Citizen satisfaction with public service delivery: A test of alternative theories. Canadian Public Administration65(2), 352-371.
  28. Romero-Subia, J. F., Jimber-del Rio, J. A., Ochoa-Rico, M. S., & Vergara-Romero, A. (2022). Analysis of Citizen Satisfaction in Municipal Services. Economies10(9), 225.
  29. Sandelowski, M., & Barroso, J. (2006). Handbook for synthesizing qualitative research. springer publishing company.
  30. Siddiquee, N. A., Xavier, J. A., & Mohamed, M. Z. (2019). What Works and Why? Lessons from Public Management Reform in Malaysia. International Journal of Public Administration, 42(1), 14–27.
  31. Thomassen, J. P., Ahaus, K., Van de Walle, S., & Nabitz, U. (2014). An Implementation Framework for Public Service Charters: Results of a concept mapping study. Public Management Review, 16(4), 570–589.
  32. Van de Walle, S. (2018). Explaining Citizen Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction with Public Services BT - The Palgrave Handbook of Public Administration and Management in Europe (E. Ongaro & S. Van Thiel (eds.); pp. 227–241). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
  33. Van Ryzin, Gregg G. (2004). Expectations, Performance, and Citizen Satisfaction with Urban Services. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management23(3): 433–48.
  34. Van Ryzin, G. G., Muzzio, D., Immerwahr, S., Gulick, L., & Martinez, E. (2004). Drivers and consequences of citizen satisfaction: An application of the American customer satisfaction index model to New York City. Public Administration Review64(3), 331-341.
  35. Van Ryzin, G. G. (2006). Testing the expectancy disconfirmation model of citizen satisfaction with local government. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory16(4), 599-611.
  36. Van Ryzin, G. G. (2013). An experimental test of the expectancy‐disconfirmation theory of citizen satisfaction. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management32(3), 597-614.
  37. Wang, F., Jun, K. N., & Wang, L. (2021). Bureaucratic contacts and their impact on citizen satisfaction with local government agencies: The influence of expectation. Public policy and Administration36(1), 41-68.
  38. Wang, P., & Fan, F. (2022). Examining and Expanding the Expectancy Disconfirmation Model: Evidence from Rural China. Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society.
  39. Weinberger, M. (2022). What Is Metaverse?—A Definition Based on Qualitative Meta-Synthesis. Future Internet14(11), 310.
  40. Welch, E. W., Hinnant, C. C., & Moon, M. J. (2005). Linking citizen satisfaction with e-government and trust in government. Journal of public administration research and theory15(3), 371-391.
  41. White, C., Hogan, M., Shelley, T., & Unnithan, N. P. (2018). The influence of procedural justice on citizen satisfaction with state law enforcement. Policing: An International Journal41(6), 687-703.
  42. Witesman, E. M., Walters, L., & Christensen, R. K. (2023). Creating a public service topology: Mapping public service motivation, public service ethos, and public service values. Public Administration.
  43. Wu, W. N., & Jung, K. (2016). A missing link between citizen participation, satisfaction, and public performance: evidences from the city and county of San Francisco. International Journal of Public Sector Performance Management2(4), 392-410.
  44. Wu, C., Shi, Z., Wilkes, R., Wu, J., Gong, Z., He, N., ... & Nicola Giordano, G. (2021). Chinese citizen satisfaction with government performance during COVID-19. Journal of Contemporary China30(132), 930-944.
  45. Xu, H., & Zhu, W. (2021). Evaluating the impact mechanism of citizen participation on citizen satisfaction in a smart city. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science48(8), 2466-2480.
  46. Yang, Y. (2018). Is transparency a double-edged sword in citizen satisfaction with public service? Evidence from China’s public healthcare. Journal of Service Theory and Practice28(4), 484-506.
  47. Zhang, J., Chen, W., Petrovsky, N., & Walker, R. M. (2021). The Expectancy‐Disconfirmation Model and Citizen Satisfaction with Public Services: A Meta‐analysis and an Agenda for Best Practice. Public Administration Review, puar.13368.
  48. The project of honoring people and satisfying clients in the administrative system (2002). Resolution of the Supreme Administrative Council. [In Persian]
  49. Vaezi, R., Shams, L., & Maleki, M. (2023). Meta-Governance: A Theory for Preserving and Promoting Public Value and Service. Studies in Public Service Administration, 1(1), 157-185. doi: 10.22054/spsa.2022.66621.1002[In Persian]